function t

Translates a string to the current language or to a given language.

The t() function serves two purposes. First, at run-time it translates user-visible text into the appropriate language. Second, various mechanisms that figure out what text needs to be translated work off t() -- the text inside t() calls is added to the database of strings to be translated. These strings are expected to be in English, so the first argument should always be in English. To enable a fully-translatable site, it is important that all human-readable text that will be displayed on the site or sent to a user is passed through the t() function, or a related function. See the Localization API pages for more information, including recommendations on how to break up or not break up strings for translation.

You should never use t() to translate variables, such as calling


, unless the text that the variable holds has been passed through t() elsewhere (e.g., $text is one of several translated literal strings in an array). It is especially important never to call


, where $user_text is some text that a user entered - doing that can lead to cross-site scripting and other security problems. However, you can use variable substitution in your string, to put variable text such as user names or link URLs into translated text. Variable substitution looks like this:

$text = t("@name's blog", array(
  '@name' => user_format_name($account),

Basically, you can put variables like @name into your string, and t() will substitute their sanitized values at translation time. (See the Localization API pages referenced above and the documentation of format_string() for details.) Translators can then rearrange the string as necessary for the language (e.g., in Spanish, it might be "blog de @name").

During the Drupal installation phase, some resources used by t() wil not be available to code that needs localization. See st() and get_t() for alternatives.


$string: A string containing the English string to translate.

$args: An associative array of replacements to make after translation. Based on the first character of the key, the value is escaped and/or themed. See format_string() for details.

$options: An associative array of additional options, with the following elements:

  • 'langcode' (defaults to the current language): The language code to translate to a language other than what is used to display the page.
  • 'context' (defaults to the empty context): The context the source string belongs to.

Return value

The translated string.

See also




Related topics

2423 calls to t()
AccessDeniedTest::testAccessDenied in drupal/core/modules/system/lib/Drupal/system/Tests/System/AccessDeniedTest.php
AccessPermissionTest::testAccessPerm in drupal/core/modules/views/lib/Drupal/views/Tests/User/AccessPermissionTest.php
Tests perm access plugin.
AccessPluginBase::summaryTitle in drupal/core/modules/views/lib/Drupal/views/Plugin/views/access/AccessPluginBase.php
Return a string to display as the clickable title for the access control.
AccessRoleTest::testAccessRole in drupal/core/modules/views/lib/Drupal/views/Tests/User/AccessRoleTest.php
Tests role access plugin.
AccessTest::testAccessNone in drupal/core/modules/views/lib/Drupal/views/Tests/Plugin/AccessTest.php
Tests none access plugin.

... See full list

57 string references to 't'
database_test_even_pager_query in drupal/core/modules/system/tests/modules/database_test/database_test.module
Runs a pager query and returns the results.
database_test_odd_pager_query in drupal/core/modules/system/tests/modules/database_test/database_test.module
Runs a pager query and returns the results.
database_test_tablesort in drupal/core/modules/system/tests/modules/database_test/database_test.module
Runs a tablesort query and returns the results.
database_test_tablesort_first in drupal/core/modules/system/tests/modules/database_test/database_test.module
Runs a tablesort query with a second order_by after and returns the results.
get_t in drupal/core/includes/
Returns the name of the proper localization function.

... See full list


drupal/core/includes/, line 1494
Functions that need to be loaded on every Drupal request.


function t($string, array $args = array(), array $options = array()) {
  static $custom_strings;

  // Merge in default.
  if (empty($options['langcode'])) {
    $options['langcode'] = language(LANGUAGE_TYPE_INTERFACE)->langcode;
  if (empty($options['context'])) {
    $options['context'] = '';

  // First, check for an array of customized strings. If present, use the array
  // *instead of* database lookups. This is a high performance way to provide a
  // handful of string replacements. See settings.php for examples.
  // Cache the $custom_strings variable to improve performance.
  if (!isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']])) {
    $custom_strings[$options['langcode']] = variable_get('locale_custom_strings_' . $options['langcode'], array());

  // Custom strings work for English too, even if locale module is disabled.
  if (isset($custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string])) {
    $string = $custom_strings[$options['langcode']][$options['context']][$string];
  elseif ($options['langcode'] != LANGUAGE_SYSTEM && ($options['langcode'] != 'en' || variable_get('locale_translate_english', FALSE)) && function_exists('locale')) {
    $string = locale($string, $options['context'], $options['langcode']);
  if (empty($args)) {
    return $string;
  else {
    return format_string($string, $args);